Official name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Capital city: Addis Ababa
Country surface area: 1,126,829 km2 / 435,071 square miles (Water ca. 0.7%) – 10th in Africa
Population: around 110,000,000
Language: Amharic as an official language and over 80 local languages are spoken. English is the second official language with Arabic, French & Italian also widely understood.
Climate: Average annual rainfall: 1,200 mm (47.2 in) and Average annual temperature (Addis Ababa): 16 °C (60.8 °F), daily maximum average: 20–25 °C (68–77 °F). Throughout most of the country there are two seasons- the dry season extend from October through May; the wet season runs from June to September.
Clothing: Because of the elevation, temperatures rarely exceed 25°C in the highland part of the country, although in some of the lower lying areas (Awash, Omo and Mago parks) it can get considerably hotter. Pack light clothes for the day time and a jacket or sweater for the evenings, and a good pair of walking shoes even if you are not going trekking – path ways around historic sites are usually uneven and stony. Trekkers in the Simien and Bale Mountains will need warm clothes and waterproofs. On a cultural note – Ethiopians are generally modest dressers, and visitors should be sensitive about going under dressed (shorts, tank tops and bare backed) especially into places of worship. Shoes must always be removed before entering churches and mosques – for getting around sites like Lalibela with its many churches airline socks are very useful.
Ethnic groups: Totally around 83 Ethnic groups. The biggest Oromo 34.49%, Amhara 26.89%, Tigray: 6.07%, Somali6.20%, Sidama 4.01%, Gurage 2.53%, Wolayta 2.31%, Afar 1.73%, Hadiya 1.74%, Gamo 1.50%, Kefficho 1.18% others 11%.
Religions: Christians: 62.8% (43.5% Ethiopian Orthodox, 19.3% other denominations), Muslims: 33.9%, traditional faiths 2.6%, other religions 0.6%.
Calendar and Time: Ethiopia follows the its own calendar. This calendar has 12 months of 30 days, and a 13th month of five or six days. New Year starts on September 11. The Ethiopian calendar is behind the Gregorian calendar by 7 years and 8 months. Ethiopia is in the GMT+3 time zone. Days begin at sunrise. 12 am = dawn, 6 pm = noon, 12 pm = dusk, (in Ethiopian time).
Country Code: + 251 (00251)
Currency: Birr (ETB)
Ethiopia is known to be still one of the safest places in Africa. Violent crimes are very rare. Tourists should be aware of pickpockets in crowded places such as markets and it is better not to show off valuables and money. In some overland regions it is recommended not to drive before dawn. In some remote areas, separatist movements have been active in the last years. Those regions are usually not easy to visit, or only with an official authorization.
Health and medical information
The possession of a valid Yellow Fever vaccination certificate is not mandatory. Immunization for Hepatitis A and B, Tetanus, Typhoid and Polio is recommended. Malaria: in most of the sites malaria is not a problem because of the high elevation, e.g. Addis Ababa, Axum, Gondar and Lalibela. But it may occur in Bahir Dar at the end of the rainy season and after unseasonable rains. Lowland areas along the Awash River, the Omo Valley, Rift Valley and Gambella are subject to malaria outbreaks. Chloroquine resistant strains have been identified in most areas so you should consult your doctor about the prophylaxis. Alternatively, you can keep mosquitoes and other insects at bay with repellent creams and sprays. Visitors should take a simple first aid pack, which would include: different size plasters, antiseptic cream, anti-histamine cream and/or tablets for insect bites, sunscreen (while temperatures are moderate the sun is strong) and anti-diarrhea tablets such as Imodium for emergencies (they will not cure the problem but will control the symptoms).
Ethiopian national dish consists of injera, a flat, circular pancake of fermented dough made from a grain seed called “Tef”, on top of which are served different kinds of cooked meats, vegetables and pulses. The sauces are generally spiced with berbera, a blend of herbs and spices (including hot peppers) that gives Ethiopian food its characteristic taste. Vegetarians should try “fasting food” (for devout Ethiopian Orthodox Christians fasting days make up more than half of the year), a colorful spread of salads, vegetables and pulses, devoid of all meat and animal products. One eats national dishes with the right hand (water for washing is usually brought to the table before the food is served), tearing off pieces of injera to pick up the “toppings”. Addis Ababa now boasts of a wide variety of restaurants, and at hotels in tourist sites European style food such as pasta is always available. If you are travelling to remote areas, such as the Omo Valley and parts of southern Ethiopia where there are no hotels or lodges, it can be advisable to stock up with tinned and packed food in Addis Ababa.
Sparkling and still mineral water, along with soft drinks, are available throughout the country. There are several brands of Ethiopians beers, wine and spirits. Imported spirits are also widely available. There are home-made alcoholic drinks: “Talla” (home-made beer) and “Tej” (wine made from honey).
Addis Ababa has three 5 star hotels and a steadily growing number of tourist class hotels. Outside the capital a variety of good and clean hotels and lodges can be found. Standards vary, but apart from the areas around Omo and Mago national parks, where camping is unavoidable, it is generally possible to get relatively clean rooms with en suite toilet and shower. Some companies have started to construct eco-tourist lodges.
Best time to travel
This depends on the region you are traveling to. In the main part of the country, in particular the highlands, the main rainy season runs from June to September, with a short rain period in March. So the best time is to travel from October till the beginning of the rainy season. In the Omo- Valley in Southern Ethiopia however, the seasons are different with the main rains from March to June and shorter rains in November. Also for the Danakil depression special timing will be requested.
Travelling by air and road
Addis Ababa is the only international airport of Ethiopia, but domestic flights by Ethiopian Airlines connect most of the regions and bigger town daily or at least twice weekly. For flights to smaller airstrips, charter flights are available. Travelling by road allows visitors to experience Ethiopia’s wonderful scenery. Road conditions are good to all the destinations of major importance. More roads are being asphalted and there will be a good web of well accessible roads in the years to come. Especially to the South, it is still necessary to travel in 4 WD vehicles. The train connection to Dire Dawa and Djibouti is currently functional.
Money can be exchanged in the airport, in major hotels and in most banks. Exchange requires a passport and the receipts should be kept, as re-exchanging back into foreign currency is difficult otherwise. The Ethiopian currency is the Birr (“Silver” in Amharic), the rate of which is fixed upon the US dollar in weekly auctions. VISA and MasterCard Credit cards are accepted in the main hotels and big shops and enterprises. Few ATMs are available at banks and international hotels.
Any foreigners except those who hold the Kenyan, Tanzanian and Djibouti passport need a visa!!! You can get your visa from the Ethiopian embassies in your home country or, for most nationalities, at arrival at the Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa (tourist visa for 30 days, fee currently 50 USD).
Due to strict custom regulations, it may cause problems at the airport to carry more than the usual basic electronic devices, especially if they are new. Import Tax payment may be required. Souvenirs imitating historic artifacts have to be approved not original by the National Museum in Addis Ababa, if not they can be
confiscated at the airport customs before leaving Ethiopia. Buying receipts have to be saved.
Photo and video cameras
Professional or high standard video equipment is difficult to be brought into Ethiopia. An official permission letter can be expensive. In some places small fees are
charged for photos taken of people, especially in the southern tribal areas of Ethiopia, but generally you’re free to take photos. Of course when picturing people we advise you to ask beforehand since not everyone likes to be photographed. Pay also attention to governmental buildings, police stations, etc. Video fees can be very high in national parks and other guarded places.